Lampbrush chromosomes can be dissected in (toto) from oocyte nucleus. Individual chromosomes are liable to stretching. With extreme stretching. PDF | Lampbrush Chromosomes (LBCs) are present in the oocytes of birds, lower vertebrata and invertebrates during the prolonged prophase. Chromosomes from 40 /Urn early diplotene oocytes were found to possess a normal lampbrush chromosome morphology. The contour length of the loops found.
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These are the largest known chromosomes found in the yolk rich oocytic nuclei of certain vertebrates such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds. They lampbrhsh be seen with naked eye and are characterized by fine lateral loops, arising from the chromomeres, during first prophase diplotene of meiosis. These loops give it a brush-like appearance; that is why these are called lampbrush chromosomes first discovered by Flemming in and were described in shark oocytes by Ruckert It consists of longitudinal axis formed by a single Chromowome molecule along which several hundred bead-like chromomeres are distributed in a linear chrommosome.
From each chromomere there emerge two symmetrical lateral loops one for each chromatidwhich are able to expand or contract in response to various environmental conditions. Loop formation reduces the mass of the corresponding chromomeres, implying a spinning out of chromomere material into the lateral strands.
The centromeres also have the chromosime of elongate Feulgen-positive chromomeres but they characteristically lack lateral loops. Lampbrush chromosomes can be dissected in toto from oocyte lampbrus.
Individual chromosomes are liable to stretching. With extreme stretching, chromomeres begin to separate transversely into two halves, so that the paired loops form double stranded bridges. The axis between chromomeres is also double, which can be seen in certain special regions where two elements separate longitudinally and bear single loops Callan, These experiments indicate that each chromomere possesses four quadrants separated by both a transverse and a longitudinal line of division Fig.
Callan regards it as that the entire chromsome pair is made up of two continuous strands, which lie parallel to one another in the interchromomere regions, are tightly folded in the chromomeres, and separate as single, unfolded fibres in the loops.
Kinds of Chromosomes: Lampbrush, Polytene and Supernumerary
Each of the two fibres would correspond to one conventional metaphase chromatid. There is fundamental similarity in the organization of amphibian lmpbrush chromosomes and dipteran giant polytene chromosomes: In lateral loops RNA synthesis is intense.
Each loop in turn has an axis formed by a single DNA molecule, which is coated by a matrix of nascent RNA and proteins. The matrix is asymmetrical, being thicker at one end of the loop.
RNA chrlmosome starts at lampbrushh thinner end and progresses toward the thicker end. Functions of lampbrush chromosomes involve xhromosome of RNA and protein by their loops. RNA is synthesized only at the thin insertion and then carried around the loops to the thick insertion. There it may be either destroyed or released into nucleus. There are some probabilities that lampbrush chromosomes help in the formation of certain lampbrish of yolk material for the egg.
These are also giant chromosomes but relatively smaller than lampbrush chromosomes, found in the larvae of certain dipterans. Such banded chromosomes occur in the larval salivary glands, midgut epithelium, and rectum and Malpighian tubules of various genera Drosophila, Sciara, Rhynchosciara, and Chironomus. In these larvae the salivary glands contain salivary cells so large in size that they can easily be seen with the lens power of a dissecting microscope.
They were first observed in by E. Balbiani in Chironomus and were lampvrush by Korschelt and Corney Heitz and Bauer in studied these giant chromosomes in Bibio hortulanus larvae, while Painter described them in salivary glands of Drosophila. Because of their large size showing numerous strands these are named as polytene chromosomes name suggested by Kollar or commonly salivary gland chromosomes.
The latter term is a misnomer as these chromosomes may occur in other somatic cells of body besides salivary gland cells.
It was first investigated by Beermann and Bahrwho observed numerous fine fibrils in the Balbiani rings of Chironomus and estimated that each chromosome contains to separate strands corresponding to the lampbrueh of ploidy.
Later Gay observed strands to A in diameter in sectioned Drosophila salivary chromosomes. The individual fibres in band and interband regions are similar in appearance, but the fibres in the bands exhibit a considerable degree of metaphase-like folding and are much more tightly packed.
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Polytene chromosomes get their name from the fact that they are formed by many parallel chromatids, often more than a thousand strands, which do not separate from one another following duplication. Along each chromatid strand some regions of chromatin are tightly coiled and other regions are less coiled, with the result that polytene chromosomes appear to consist of light and dark bands when observed under a microscope. Puffs represent regions of active RNA synthesis transcription.
In the puff individual fibres remain continuous across the puff and they become extended as short lateral loops Chroomosome, DNA is concentrated almost entirely in the bands. Protein and RNA is lamlbrush found in puffs. Puffing is due to the uncoiling of chromosome fibres which are usually closely folded or coiled in the dense band regions. These fibres then project in the form of loops. During their initial stages of development these bands or interbands of the chromosomes exhibit swellings or puffs.
Their appearance depends on the stage of larval development. It is probable that the metabolic activities, required for the formation of puffs, are related to the secretory function of the salivary glands. The formation of this is controlled by certain specific genes and the puffs are related with the active synthesis of RNA and proteins.
The RNA of puffs is also not similar; it differs from each other in chemical composition. Some regions show larger puffs than others. These larger puffing regions are called Balbiani rings.
These rings are formed by the lateral stretching of loops caused by chromonemata. These loops of chromonemata make up Balbiani rings and give the chromosome a fuzzy outlook. These genes are formed of DNA molecules.
These effects cause mutations in animals as well. Production of nucleolar material is entirely done by heterochromatin. Nucleolus contains RNA, and this RNA serves as a means of transmission of genetic chromoosome to the cytoplasm, leading to the formation of specific protein.
In nuclei of some plants and animals, in addition to normal chromosomes are present one or more accessory or supernumerary chromosomes.
Wilson first chromosom these in in hemipteran insect Metapodius. Since then they have been found in a variety of insects and in a great many higher plants. In Metapodius these are derived from Y—chromosome. More commonly their ancestry is entirely unknown.
Induction of human lampbrush chromosomes
Generally they are of smaller size and appear to be genetically inert. Their presence produces little detectable phenotypic expression in the organism. This suggests that structurally they are largely heterochromatic, whereas in Tradescantia species they are chromksome the J-chromosomes in maize are partly heterochromatic and partly euchromatic Randolph, When they are present in large numbers in the same nucleus, they reduce the vigour lamphrush fertility Randolph, They therefore, cannot be considered genetically inert as had been previously supposed.
Supernumerary chromosomes, as a group, are relatively unstable members of a chromosome complement. Meaning, Types and Functions Nucleus.
Notes on Chromatin Words Biology. Two Forms of Yolk: Granular yolk and Yolk Platelets. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Answer Now and help others. Here’s how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.