Download Citation on ResearchGate | Kepadatan Jumlah Kumbang Badak ( Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Tanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis jacq.). Download Citation on ResearchGate | Tingkat Serangan Kumbang Badak ( Oryctes rhinoceros L.) Pada Areal Pertanaman Kelapa Sawit (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. PREFERENSI KUMBANG BADAK (Oryctes rhinocheros) PADA KOLEKSI. PALEM KEBUN RAYA PURWODADI. Dewi Ayu Lestari. 1). Rony Irawanto. 2).
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Initially oval in shape, they begin to swell about a week after laying and hatch within days Wood, a. The larval stages are usually yellowish-white in colour and may grow to about mm long, or more Wood, a ; Ooi, The maximum head capsule width is about The cranium is medium to dark brown, with numerous round pits, many of which bear minute setae. Thoracic spiracles are 1. Respiratory plate with a maximum of or more small, round to oval holes along any diameter.
Thoracic spiracles larger than abdominal spiracles; first abdominal spiracle somewhat smaller than succeeding spiracles for detailed information, see Bedford The larval stages may look similar to other species within the scarabeid family e.
Xylotrupes gideonScapanes australisTrichogomphus fairmaireiOryctes centaurus and Oryctoderus sp. A key to differentiate the larval stages of these species has been provided by Bedford The presence of the organ of Herold on the ventral surface of the ninth abdominal segment indicates the male sex Hurpin, ; Elliott, Lucanid and cetoniine beetles, which often shared the same breeding sites, may also be confused with the early instars of O.
The prepupa is somewhat similar in appearance to the larval stage, except that it is smaller than the final larval instar. Shrivelled in appearance, it shakes its body actively when disturbed.
It is segmented on the dorsal surface.
The length of the horn-shaped protuberances on the anterior may indicate the sex of the adult. Stout-looking adults, dark brown to black, shiny, mm long and mm wide, with a prominent horn on head Wood, a ; Bedford, The males having a relatively longer horn than the female.
The males can be differentiated more accurately by having a rounded, shiny terminal abdominal segment while the female has a relatively hairier ‘tail’ Wood, a. The difference is the three tubercles on the thoracic ridge for O. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available.
When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Bqdak details may be available for individual references badao the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
Primarily found attacking coconut and oil palm, O. In Mauritius, ornamentals such as the royal palm Roystonea regiathe latanier palm Livistona chinensisthe talipot palm Corypha umbraculifera and the raphia palm Raphia ruffia are attacked Bedford, On oil palms they bore through petiole bases into the central badsk leaves.
These attacks subsequently produce fronds which have wedge-shaped gaps or the characteristic V-shaped cuts to fronds Wood, a ; Sadakathulla and Ramachandran, The eggs hatch after days and the entire larval stage is spent inside the breeding medium. Development of the larva takes days: The beetle then enters the prepupal stage of about days, subsequently pupating within a pupal chamber made from the food substrate. The pupal stage lasts days.
Adults may live up to 6 months or more Bedford, ; Khoo et al. Bedford c, reviewed the life-cycle of O. This may be caused by differences in climatic and nutritional conditions of different habitats.
Dry climate or low nutritional conditions often delayed larval development of O.
Catley also demonstrated that with ample food supply, the duration of the third-instar larvae is within months. With superior and improved larval diet combined with suitable temperatures, the duration of the larval stages can be shortened from 6 to 5 months Schipper, Similarly, Wood a demonstrated that the larvae required about months to mature in oil palm log tissue, while a shorter maturity period of months was observed in a habitat mixture of cowdung and sawdust.
Badaj adult beetles feed by boring into the growing point or meristem of coconut palms and this is the basak cause of crop damage leading badzk loss of yield and death in in coconut palms of all ages. Similar attacks stunt growth or may kill young oil palms.
The larvae feed on dead wood; dead palm logs and stumps and the tops of dead standing coconut poles are a primary breeding site. The entomopathogenic virus Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus OrNVwhich was originally discovered in Malaysia Huger,attacks both the kkumbang and adult stages of O.
It has since been introduced into Fiji Bedford, d,the Maldives and other islands in the South Pacific to control O. Oryctes larvae also succumb to attack by the kumgang entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae Sundara Babu et al. However, tests have shown that O. Latch tested 34 isolates baddak Beauveria bassiana and B. Bacterial pathogens which have the potential to control larval stages of Oryctes were identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Kannan et al.
A list of predators and parasitoids for Bzdak. Wood a also reported the barn owl Tyto alba javanica as a predator of the beetles. Other natural enemies affecting O. The larvae may also be transported to new areas in floating logs. On oil palms, O. Spears may collapse or emerged fronds may break off along the petiole or midrib Wood, In young palms where the spears are narrower and penetration may occur lower down, the effects of damage can be much more severe than in older palms Wood, a.
The young palms affected by the beetle damage are believed to have iumbang delayed immaturity period Liau and Ahmad, Thus, early oil palm yields could be considerably reduced after a prolonged and serious rhinoceros beetle attack.
File:Kumbang badak jantan 2.JPG
Although Wood et al. In Kumhang, the infestation in oil palm was more prevalent in mature plantations year old compared to immature or younger plantings Dhileepan, Similarly, on coconut the reduction in leaf area of the palms influences nut production Zelazny, a but the attack was more towards the tall, mature trees, from about 5 years of age onwards Bedford, c.
Serious attacks on coconut may be observed in areas adjacent to a breeding site with a high beetle population, especially in the coastal region of Peninsular Malaysia. On both oil palms and coconuts, O. This causes tissue maceration and the presence of a fibrous frass inside the feeding hole is an indication of its activity within Catley, The adults may be forced out by ‘winkling’ with a hooked barbed wire into the feeding hole.
Larval, pupal as well as adult hadak may be detected and inspected by digging into or badakk open its possible breeding sites its possible breeding grounds. The larvae of Xylotrupes gideon are more hairy than gadak of O. The head capsule at each larval stage is also smaller Wood, a.
Aegus chelifer larvae are relatively hairless, relatively more translucent, with an orange head and a longitudinal anal slit Wood, a.
File:Kumbang badak jantan.JPG
Coelodera diardi larvae appear to be very similar to the second-instar O. When placed on a slippery surface they swiftly move away on their backs. See Description for keys to larvae kunbang adults, also Bedford a for a description of the Chalcosoma atlas larva from Malaysia, and Bedford for the larva of O.
A method for trapping adults has been developed and tested by Hoyt and Bedford The whole trap is set at a height of 1. There was no chemical attractant used in this trap: When a small quantity of the synthetic chemical attractant ethyl dihydrochrysanthemumate chrislure was applied to the coconut cap of the Hoyt trap, catch was increased Bedford, compared to dispensing the lure from a more expensive metal vane-type trap Barber et al.
Chrislure was subsequently superseded by ethyl chrysanthemumate rhinolure Maddison bzdak al. Hoyt’s trap was used kumbag Bedford to monitor population trends at a density of 23 traps per 8 hectares.
File:Kumbang badak jantan – Wikimedia Commons
To control beetle infestation, the density of the traps should be increased at the borders of a known source of infestation rather than inside the field Young, The use of light traps for controlling populations has been found to be ineffective: Wood a indicated that beetles do not often enter traps although they are attracted to the light source.
However, light traps may be useful for monitoring purposes. A male-produced aggregation pheromone, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate E4-MO was discovered Hallett et al.
It has been synthesised and is available commercially for details of synthesis and types of traps available, see Bedford a. It is reported to be 10 times more attractive than ethyl chrysanthemumate.
The pheromone is stored in a small, heat-sealed, polymer membrane bag and placed between interlocking metal vanes mounted on a plastic bucket. Bxdak beetles attracted by the pheromone are trapped inside the bucket. It is very useful as a monitoring tool, and as an economical control method particularly in young oil basak replant areas when placed at one trap per 2 ha Norman and Basri, ; Oeschlager, ; Kumbant, Sanitation within and surrounding the plantations, especially destruction of the potential or existing breeding sites of this pest, provides an important basis for its control Wood, a ; Turner, Manure heaps and pits may have to be covered or alternatively turned regularly for the removal of the grubs Catley, This restricts the damage in oil palm to low levels Wood et al.
Removal of the adults from the point of attack in young palms by using a hooked piece of wire winkling can be considered a common mechanical control technique to reduce the number of adults in an infested area.
This practice is often costly, labour intensive and needs to be conducted regularly, provided that sufficient labour is available. However, some additional damage may be inflicted to the young palms during the search for the adults, making the practice not entirely satisfactory.
Early attempts at biological control of O. None of those that became established was able to provide satisfactory control.
Endemic natural enemies of O. OrNV and the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae have been utilized further for field control of this pest in several countries George and Kurian, ; Latch and Falloon, ; Zelazny, b ; Bedford, ; Darwis, For OrNV, the adult beetles are dipped in a suspension of ground, infected grubs.
They are then allowed to crawl about for 24 hours through sterilized sawdust mixed with the above suspension. OrNV suspension may also be applied directly to the mouthparts of adults to infect them for release Ramle et al.