Presents the span of control formulas created by V A Graicunas. PDF | On, Fred Nickols and others published The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of. control .. A Control Theory View of Human Behavior and Performance. Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. A. Graicunas. In he used assumptions about mental capacity and attention span to.

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As Graicunas noted, this was “an increase in complexity of per cent in return for a 20 per cent increase in working capacity.

Regarding c above, Tom’s relationship with Dick contrkl different when Harry is present just as Tom’s relationship with Harry is different when Dick is present. Graicunas, when the number of subordinates increases then there is an increase in the Direct Single Relationships, Direct Group Relationships and Cross Relationships.

Span of control

This solution would be equivalent to the application of Fayol’s bridge combined with the principle of employee initiative that he proposed.

Retrieved from ” https: Graicunas and, later, Urwick, both noted the existence of pressures to increase the span of control. It appears natural, that no organization can afford to maintain a control structure of a dimension being required for implementing a scalar chain under the unity of command condition.

When a particular amount is raised t In all cases, Urwick pointed out, the benefits of flattening the organization, forcing authority and initiative downward, and reducing the overhead costs of management had to be weighed against the costs of confusion and indecision that accompany a span of control that is too broad.


At the same time, decision power is distributed to individuals on lower levels in the organization, and only decisions that exceed the pre-defined decision scope of an employee are referred upwards. Difference Between Authority and Power in Manageme This principle became known under the name of Fayol’s bridge.

The Span of Control – the formulas of V A Graicunas

Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has. Advantages of Selecting an Appropriate Span of Con December 23, at 4: The figures just mentioned are derived from Graicunas’ table which was apparently calculated using the formulas he provided.

Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. In other projects Wikiquote. Meaning Features Steps Import Thus Graicunas cautioned any executive seeking to add a fifth directly reporting subordinate to consider the fact that this would add 20 new relationships for himself and nine for each of his current colleagues.

In spite of numerous attempts since then, no convincing theories have been presented. Maximum Case Subordinates are responsible for interdependent work or units Kind of Relationship. About Me shalini chauhan.

Span of control – Wikipedia

According to this assumption, they considered the opportunity of having access to a supervising manager would be sufficient to satisfy the need for control in standard situations. Often this is accomplished through reporting relationships and the control over resources they bring with them.

The sum of these three types of interactions is the number of potential relationships of a supervisor. Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theorist and engineer. The relevant notations and elements are provided below and subsequently illustrated using Conrrol example of a superior, Tom, who has two subordinates, Dick and Harry.


Graicunas showed with these formulas, that each additional subordinate increases the number of potential interactions significantly. First, however, a little history.

They assumed that a considerable amount of decisions could be delegated to organizational members at lower organizational levels.

Span of Control: The Formulas of V. A. Graicunas

The nine fo functions of devel In January ofI had occasion to post to an HR list a comment about span of control and the formulas of V. Meaning Organising or Organizing in management refers to the relationship between people, work and resources used to ac Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french conteol consultant, management theorist and engineer. Share to Twitter Share to Facebook. Graicunas, as the number of subordinates increases arithmetically like 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc.

As a result, the need for supervision would be reduced from direct control to exception handling. Lyndall Urwick developed a theory based on geographical dispersion and the need for face to face meetings.

Graicunas did in fact survive the war but was theorry by the Russians in and died in a Russian prison.

Therefore, a superior can only control a limited number of subordinates, and anything beyond this limit is very hard to control. Graicunas’ paper contains formulas, a table and a chart, all showing the exponential growth in complexity of relationships as the number of reporting subordinates increases.