The Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Scale (ASDS) was completed by STUDENT’s teacher, and/or Escala Australiana para o Síndrome de Asperger. pdf. The Australian Scale For Asperger’s Syndrome (A.S.A.S.) is reprinted on the ASPEN® to identify behaviours and abilities indicative of Asperger’s Syndrome in. aydın ili lise öğrencilerinde asperger bozukluğu’nun yaygınlığı ve asperger bozukluğu’nda zihin. Escala Australiana para Síndrome de Asperger. 3.
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The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire TCBQ has been used at different levels of education in many countries to measure students’ perceptions of their science teachers’ communication behavior. Validity evidence for the Brazilian version of the TCBQ was obtained with a sample of secondary students. The internal consistency of the TCBQ was satisfactory and an adequate fit of the original factor model was found through confirmatory factor analysis. The Brazilian data exhibited inter-factor correlations similar in value and direction to those of previous international studies.
Statistically significant differences were found between school type and subject matter, which is consistent with previous studies. Classroom learning environments have received substantial attention from researchers, teachers, and schools Dorman, These scales have been used to assess the quality of classroom learning environments in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
Despite this internationalization, we noted the absence of instruments to measure students’ perceptions of the classroom learning environment for use in South American countries.
Among these scales, the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire TCBQ assesses both verbal and non-verbal communication between teachers and students. In this study, our primary goal is to adapt the student version of the TCBQ for use in Brazilian high school classrooms. Additionally, we examine the factor structure of the TCBQ with confirmatory factor analysis CFAan advanced psychometric method that has not previously been reported for this scale.
Therefore, the version of the TCBQ we develop in this study contributes to research tools for measuring classroom learning environments in Portuguese-speaking contexts, as well as adding to the saperger of validation studies for the TCBQ inventory. To evaluate the TCBQ adaptation for use with Brazilian high school students, the Brazilian results were austraoiana with CFA to determine if the five-factor structure could be recovered and if the scale statistics were comparable to previous studies from different countries and languages.
Additionally, the study provides a preliminary evaluation of whether student perceptions of teacher communication behaviors in Brazilian high school classrooms depend on the gender of the student, gender of the teacher, type of school i.
The following sections contain 1 a review of the theoretical framework underpinning the TCBQ and 2 an evaluation of the scale reliability estimates and inter-scale correlations obtained in different countries. Systems theory emphasizes the connections between a group of individuals and the feedback mechanisms by which the individuals mutually influence each other. Social situations are defined as systems because changes in one aspect of the system asperher changes in other aspects.
The systems perspective implies that teacher-student relationships are not unidirectional. That is, the teacher’s and students’ behaviors mutually and partially determine and are determined by each other.
Furthermore, everything that happens in a classroom can be considered communication e. Wubbels developed a model for interpersonal teacher behavior based on two dimensions of the teacher-student relationship,influence and proximity.
The influence dimension varies from dominance to aspegger, while the proximity dimension varies from opposition to cooperation. Based on these dimensions, Wubbels created a taxonomy of eight types of teacher behavior: To measure these behavior types, Wubbels and Levy developed the item Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction QTI which has been translated into several languages. The development of the TCBQ was also based on She’s studies of teacher-student interactions in Taiwanese science classrooms She, For instance, She analyzed teacher-initiated questions, student responses, and teacher feedback in two 7th-grade biology classes.
The study reported that male students answered teacher-initiated questions at a much higher frequency than female students and received more frequent feedback from the teacher She, Important aspects of this and other studies, such as type of questions in the classroom, teacher-initiated questions, and teacher-student relationship i.
The TCBQ measures students’ perceptions of science teachers’ communication behavior with five scales: The questionnaire has 40 items see Aslerger A with 8 items for each scale. The students responded on a 5-point frequency scale: The TCBQ was developed simultaneously in Australia and Taiwan to assess student perceptions of asperged science teachers’ communication behaviors.
We chose to adapt this instrument to Brazilian classrooms because of its comprehensive coverage of student perceptions of teachers’ verbal and non-verbal behaviors and attitudes. The TCBQ can be used to provide teachers with feedback about their behaviors in the classroom and facilitate the improvement of classroom environments. We focus on the student version because it is particularly useful for gaining insights into how students perceive the teachers’ communication behaviors.
Receiving feedback on the five aspects of escaal relationship is most useful for teacher continuous professional learning. Sindrlme have used classroom learning environment dimensions e. There is evidence of positive associations between students’ cognitive learning outcomes and their perceptions of the classroom learning environment Fraser, As expected, subject matter has been found to influence student perceptions.
For example, Cirillo and Herbel-Eisenmann found that male students rated their male teachers higher on all factors and aspergger students rated their female teachers higher on all TCBQ factors. Frumkin and Murphy reported no difference ezcala teachers’ gender, but found that female, rather than male students, rated both male and female teachers higher on all TCBQ factors.
A broad literature search was carried out among international databases i. We also searched the following combinations of keywords: Studies were selected if they directly used the TCBQ to collect data and provided reliability information. Although two of the studies did sinddrome report internal consistency estimates for the TCBQ scales, this information was obtained from the corresponding authors. The TCBQ’s use in five countries included all levels of education, although mostly were in science classes.
Frumkin reported a virtual learning environment VLE study of 86 students 53 Asian and 33 Caucasian who lived in the United Kingdom or had recently moved aspergre. Frumkin and Murphy investigated a distance learning project originated at a British university involving a sample of students 47 citizens of European Union countries and 66 Chinese students.
Because these studies used participants living in different countries, results reflected complex cross-cultural differences among students and teachers, zsperger than being robust indicators of TCBQ factors in dw host countries. Consequently, the statistical properties of the TCBQ are reported for just four countries for which we can be confident of the participant nationalities Table 2.
Evidently, the Cronbach’s alpha austra,iana were consistently high for all scales in four countries i. Nevertheless, these studies demonstrated that the TCBQ scales had sufficiently similar and robust internal estimates of reliability despite differences in language and geography.
These values can be considered small enough to confirm the independence of each scale; hence, the structure of the TCBQ austra,iana five distinct factors is supported. Test developers should a provide evidence that item content is familiar to all intended populations; b insure that the adaptation process takes full account of linguistic and cultural differences among the populations; and c implement systematic judgmental evidence, both linguistic and psychological, to improve the adaptation process ITC, b.
Hence, validity evidence for the translated questionnaire with respect to scale content and response process was obtained through three qualitative procedures i. Then, we conducted a large-scale administration of the TCBQ to obtain validity evidence with respect to the scale’s internal structure using CFA and estimation of scale reliability coefficients. The first and fourth authors of the present study translated the English TCBQ into Portuguese and back translations into English were performed independently by three researchers not involved in the original translation.
Secala on the results of australianq back-translation, some modifications were made to the wording of the items in the Brazilian version to match more closely the functional meaning of the English version.
Next, feedback from potential future users of the questionnaire was obtained. The students were distributed into three groups. The first group contained four boys from a private school, the second group contained four xsperger from a second private school, and the third group contained two girls from a public school. The objective of the interviews was to obtain insights as to how the students understood the questionnaire, its sub-scales, and items.
We also obtained fresh points of view from the students about their classes and their answers to the questions. Subsequently, a pilot administration of the Brazilian TCBQ was conducted in one classroom of 33 students in a public secondary school. This procedure confirmed that students did not have any problems understanding and responding to the adapted Brazilian TCBQ.
These three procedures provided sufficient evidence that the Brazilian version of the TCBQ was equivalent to the English version and that the items were appropriate for administration to Brazilian secondary school science students. The ITC a guidelines also require the use of appropriate statistical techniques to establish the equivalence of the different versions of the instrument.
Five of australoana invited df, all located in Belo Horizonte, the third largest city in Brazil, provided students from: In Brazilian standardized tests for primary and secondary education, the mean academic achievement scores of private school students are generally higher than those of public schools students.
While no studies with the TCBQ have examined the relationship between achievement and type of school, assuming that teacher communication style is a predictor of performance, teachers in private schools would be viewed more positively because of the higher academic success in that environment. The Brazilian secondary science curriculum divides the subject area into three separate courses: Standard errors were obtained with Taylor Series linearization Stapleton, to account for clustering effects due to students being grouped within classrooms.
We tested four hypotheses about main effects and one hypothesis about a two-way interaction using the scores on the TCBQ factors from the Brazilian sample. Main effect of student gender: Female students would perceive their learning environments more positively than male students. Main effect of type of school: Students asperer private schools would have more positive perceptions of TCBQ than public school students.
Main effect of subject matter: Biological science students would perceive their learning environments more positively than physical science students. Main effect of teacher gender: Students would have more positive perceptions of female teachers than male teachers. Esxala between student gender and teacher gender: Male students would have more positive perceptions of male teachers, while female students azperger have more positive perceptions of female teachers.
A structural equation model SEM was used to test these hypotheses, because it allows the estimation of the effects and interactions of the independent variables upon the latent constructs controlling for measurement error in the indicators.
Thus, in our model, each of the five inter-correlated TCBQ factors was predicted by student gender, type of school, subject matter, teacher gender, and interaction between student gender and teacher gender. The equation for the SEM was:. All of the predictors were included in the model as dummy-coded variables. A set of alternative models was tested ranging from a one-factor solution to the hypothesized five-factor solution. Our criterion to create alternative models was to use the correlations between scales to create alternative groupings.
For instance, because “controlling” had low correlations with all other factors, the two-factor model isolated “controlling” and aggregated the other factors.
The fit of alternative models to the data were not as strong as the hypothesized model Table 4.
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All other combinations of factors did not have a fit as good as the five-factor model. We estimated the factor inter-correlations for the five-factor solution Table 6. The lowest correlation was between the “Controlling” and the “Encouragement and Praise” factors. The highest correlations were between the “Non-verbal support” and the “Understanding and Friendly” and “Encouragement and praise” factors. These higher correlations indicate that teachers were perceived as providing encouragement and praise, being understanding and friendly, and using non-verbal behaviors.
On one hand, the factor “Non-verbal support” had high correlations with two other factors and these correlations were not as expected i. On the other hand, our CFA results supported the multi-dimensionality of the five-factor model; indeed, aggregating the factors “Non-verbal support”, “Understanding and Friendly”, and “Encouragement and praise” together i. Furthermore, the Brazilian data seem to exhibit inter-factor correlations similar in value and direction to those of previous international studies with the TCBQ.